«Образец экзаменационных заданий для устной части экзамена по общему английскому языку на I курсе 1. Retell the text on the topic “Ecology”. Climate Will Change What Reefs ...»
Образец экзаменационных заданий для устной части экзамена по общему английскому языку на I курсе
1. Retell the text on the topic “Ecology”.
Climate Will Change What Reefs Look Like in the Future
The impact of a warming climate on reefs is not a future event — complex changes have already begun that could fundamentally change what reefs look like in the future.
Over the past century global temperatures have warmed by 0.7C and those of the surface tropical oceans by 0.5C. This raising of baseline temperatures has already resulted in widespread coral bleaching events and outbreaks of coral diseases. Current projections indicate that the tropical oceans could be 1-3C warmer by the end of this century.
Even with the modest amount of warming to date —compared to future projections—coral growth rates are responding to these observed temperature changes. Several reefs, including the Great Barrier Reef, have witnessed slower massive coral growth in recent decades, while cooler reef sites off Western Australia have, initially, responded by increasing their growth rates. The latter is unlikely to be sustainable, given the setbacks in growth following coral bleaching and, as temperatures continue to warm, optimum temperatures for coral growth are exceeded, she said.
Ultimately the global community must act to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. But new science is also showing that, given that the impact on corals will be more variable than first realized, our management approaches must become more sophisticated, with particular focus on reducing local threats such as overexploitation and pollution. Managing reefs for local stress will ensure maximum health as they continue to confront a changing global climate.
Changes to coral reef habitat caused by climate change will also potentially lead to changed fish populations. The direct impacts, which are already occurring, are reduced coral cover and less habitat structure for fish.
These changes will ultimately have severe impacts on the millions of people worldwide who depend on reefs for food, income and storm protection. Reefs also contribute to national economies through such sectors as tourism and commercial fisheries.
2. Speak about your main ecological concerns. Can you call yourself an environmentally-conscious person?
3. Translate the following word-combinations into English: катастрофа будет невообразимая, извержение вулкана, быть подверженным заболеваниям, производить ложное впечатление, брошенные машины.
4. Speak about the use of articles with geographical names.