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I. , : Collecting duties in Russia goes back to the late 10th century when inland duties were first recorded. The most ...

I. , :

Collecting duties in Russia goes back to the late 10th century when inland duties were first recorded.

The most ancient one known as myt or myto to be found in the Russian Justice, a code of laws adopted under Yaroslav the Wise.

lefttop00In the middle of the 13th century a new kind of duty tamga was introduced by the mongols, who conquered most of Russia. This Turkic word means a brand or seal. With time the tamga became one of the most lucrative duties, as it was paid on the value of merchandise.

The Russian word for Customs tamozhnya like many others connected with customs, derives from the noun tamga.

Originally customs duties were collected at markers and fairs. These places were given the name of tamozhnya (a customs house) and an official responsible for collecting duties was called tamozhenik (a duty collector).

Thus, Russia has had a Customs Service in some form for the past 1000 years. After the adoption of the Code of Commerce (1653), Customs Charter (1654) and the new Trade Rules (1667) the system was completely reshaped.

In these documents inland and foreign trade related duties were separated, inland duties were unified and foreign trade related duties were split into import and export ones.

Special permits were granted to foreigners so that they could carry on trade in Russia. But they were allowed to trade only in frontier towns on pain of confiscation.

Such protectionism has been in force for the most of the next 300 years. Every tsar, from Peter the Great to Nicolas II, approved laws limiting the import of foreign goods and defending Russian producer.

For the last time in Russian history the customs service was reorganized in 1912. Since then its main functions are:

Fiscal (revenue collection);

Economic (enforcement of cash export controls to ensure better money circulation and credit policies);

Maintenance of public security (customs, like police, had to control imports that might have been a danger to social stability and existing regime).

Keeping trade related statistics (so that right duties could have been fixed).

During the Soviet period foreign trade was strictly monopolized in the USSR. Customs neither had any significant functions in the economy nor played any important role. Now Customs policy has a far greater role in Russias regulation of economic activities than in countries with developed market economy.

Integration and GATT/WTO development has brought to zero the average Customs duty payment. The Customs tariff is not an economic and trade regulator any longer in Europe.

Tariff for the Russian Federation is of great importance.

During the 90 s, much was done to create Customs legislation in Russia. Two important laws were put into power: The Customs Code of the Russian Federation and On Customs Tariff.

Today the Russian Customs officers keep the best traditions of the Russian Customs service.

Efficiently protecting the economic interests of the state, the modern customs collects revenues to the federal budget.

In the north west of Russia the transformation of the customs service from the baggage searching police to the economy oriented service began in May 1990 when the North West Customs Administration of the Russian Federation was established.





The years that have passed since then SAW:

Creation of the modern customs infrastructure along the only Russias border with the European Union;

The modernization of the state frontier with Finland and the Baltic states.Computerized technologies were introduced at the customs offices to simplify and speed up customs formalities.

Notes:

to collect duties

to go back to ...

to record .

Russian Justice .

a code of laws

to adopt, adoption ,

to introduce ,

to conquer

lucrative , ,

value of merchandise

to connect

to derive from

completely

to reshape

special permits

to grant , ()

on pain of .

to approve laws

to defend maintenance .

significant

legislation

to collect revenues to the federal budget ,

transformation

baggage searching

to establish ,

When were the first inland duties recorded?

a) to the late 10th century b) to the late 15th century c) to the late 8th century

What was the name of the most ancient duty?

a) book b) law c) myt or myto

What duty was introduced in the mid of the 13th century?

a) law b) tamga c) book

What does the word tamga mean?

a) wind b) brand c) horse

What was reorganized in 1912?

a) the customs service b) a code of laws c) federal budget

What was specific feature of customs policy in Russia for the most of 300 years?

a) protectionism b) individualism c) bilingualism

When was foreign trade strictly monopolized in the USSR?

a) during the Soviet period b) during Stalins reign c) during reforms of Peter the Great

8. Who keeps the best traditions of the Russian Customs service?

a) the USA Customs officers b) the Russian Customs officers c) the Lithuanian Customs officers

What began in May 1990?

a) creation of the Customs legislation b) the transformation to the baggage searching police

c) the transformation to the economy oriented service

What were introduced at the customs offices to simplify and speed up customs formalities?

a) simplified customs categories b) customs warehouse c) computerized technologies

II. :

Collecting duties in Russia goes...

a) during reforms of Yaroslav the Wise b) from Peter the Great to Nicolas II c) back to the late 10th century

The most ancient inland duties are known as...

a) myt or myto b) money or grand c) pen or pencils

In the 13th century a new kind of duties...

was introduced b) was read c) was wittenThis Turkic word means...

a) law b) tamga c) book

Originally customs duties were collected...

at markers and fairs b) in the hotspot of Narva c) at the theatres

After the adoption... system was...

After the adoption of the constitution political parties appeared

the Code of Commerce (1653), Customs Charter (1654) and the new Trade Rules (1667) the system was completely reshaped

after the adoption of a new technology

III. :

10 .

a) Tariff for the Russian Federation is of great importance.

b) Collecting duties in Russia goes back to the late 10th century.

c) Originally customs duties were collected at markers and fairs.

2. .

a) Computerized technologies were introduced at the customs offices.

b) Tariff for the Russian Federation is of great importance.

c) The most ancient one known as myt or myto.

3. 13 .

a) Today the Russian Customs officers keep the best traditions.

b) For the last time in Russian history the customs service was reorganized in 1912.

c) In the middle of the 13th century a new kind of duty tamga was introduced by the mongols.

4. 1000 .

a) The modernization of the state frontier with Finland and the Baltic states.

b) Russia has had a Customs Service in some form for the past 1000 years.

c) Efficiently protecting the economic interests of the state.

5. .

a) The most ancient one known as myt or myto.

b) Creation of the modern customs infrastructure along the only Russias border.

) Special permits were granted to foreigners6. 300 .

a) Two important laws were put into power.

b) Potectionism has been in force for the next 300 years.

c) The modern customs collects revenues to the federal budget.

7. : , , .

a) Main functions of the Russian Customs service are: economic; maintenance of public security, keeping trade related.

b) Integration and GATT/WTO development has brought to zero the average Customs duty payment.

c) Documents inland and foreign trade related duties were separated.

8. 90 .

a) The Russian word for Customs tamozhnya derives from the noun tamga.

b) Originally customs duties were collected at markers and fairs.

c) During the 90 s, much was done to create Customs legislation.

9. 1990 .

a) Russia had a Customs Service.

b) The transformation of the customs service in the North West began in May 1990.

c) The modern customs collects revenues to the federal budget.

Module VI. Certain Formalities through which Iincoming/Ooutcoming passengers must pass

I. , :

Almost all countries have certain formalities through which incoming/outcoming passengers must pass.

They include passport and visa control, health control and inspection of the passengers baggage.

Almost all countries also have forms of one sort or another.

When the passenger enters/leaves the country he must fill in an entry/exit declaration which is to be presented to the customs officer.

The passenger must also declare all dutiable articles. Prohibited or restricted articles though declared are usually detained and the traveler can collect item on his way back. Personal belongings may be brought in or taken out duty free.

The declaration must be kept until leaving Russia. The lost declaration cannot be restored and its copies are unavailable. Filling in the customs declaration is mandatory if you have something to declare.

The dual channel or RED and GREEN system was introduced to simply Customs Control.

The system allows choosing between 2 types of channel.

One (green channel) is for passenger having no goods or goods free of import duties and taxes.

The other (red channel) is for passenger having goods to declare.

Each channel must be clearly marked.

For the channel green Nothing to declare.For the channel red Goods to declare.Passengers even if they have selected the Green channel can be subject to a sport check.

Using the Green channel is not allowed when the imported/exported amount (including foreign and/or Russian currency in cash, travelers checks and internal and foreign certified securities) exceeds the equivalent to USD 10.000 and/or in cases when there is a luggage travelling separately.

Extra money not declared and therefore concealed from the customs control is liable to confiscation. It is prohibited to change money with private persons. The violation of the currency regulations is the criminal offence.

The cash export is limited with the imported amount equivalent to USD 10.000 or the imported amount registered in the entry customs declaration.

Imported items of cultural value (musical instruments, pictures, sculptures, icons, ancient coins, insignia, postal stamps and other articles) created more than 50 years ago must be also mentioned in the customs declaration.

It is not allowed to export from Russia items, including artworks older than 50 years and items of special cultural value regardless to the date of its production. To export an item of cultural value including contemporary artworks, except for those registered in the entry customs declaration, the authorized certificate is necessary issued by the RF Ministry of Culture.

The nowadays souvenirs and cultural items of mass production need no permission to be exported.

Without customs duties and taxes, the goods that cost less than the equivalent of USD 10.000 can be exported.

The Customs officer may ask the passenger to open his luggage for inspection. The owner of the baggage must answer all the questions of the officer in charge on the contents of his baggage and must present any article for customs examination.

Notes:

inspection, examination

to enter/to leave /

entry/exit declaration /

to present, to show

citizenship

country of residence

permanent

purpose

to restore

available

mandatory

to prohibit

to restrict

articles, items, goods ,

spot check

to import/to export /

to alloW

currency in cash

certified securities

amount

extra money ,

to conceal

to be liable

to confiscate, to seize

contraband, smuggling

violation

currency violation

criminal offence

items of cultural value

insignia

to mention

importance

contemporary

except for those registered

authorized certificate

to issue ()

permit, permission

cost

owner

officer in charge

contents

1. What certain formalities have almost all countries through which incoming/outcoming passengers must pass?

a) You will transit landside if you arrive on a flight, pass through immigration control.

b) Almost all countries have certain formalities: passport and visa control, health control and inspection of the passengers baggage.

c) Passport control checks the allowance of a person to be on Russian territory.

3. What document must the traveler fill in?

a) The traveler you must fill in the required fields.

b) The traveler must fill in subsequent accommodation forms.

c) The traveler must fill in an entry/exit declaration.

6. What happens to prohibited or restricted articles?

a) Before listing your articles, make sure its allowed to collect them on your way back.

b) Prohibited or restricted articles though declared are usually detained.

c) Describes what baggage items are prohibited or restricted from being in airplanes.

7. Can a passenger bring in/take out personal belongings dutyfree?

a) Personal belongings may be brought in or taken out duty free.

b) When entering the U.S. or returning to the U.S. from a foreign country with goods you purchased or received during your trip, you must declare them on a Customs and Border Protection (CBP) declaration CBP form.

c) Most personal items such as new clothing, footwear, and articles for personal hygiene and grooming (excluding fur and perfume concentrates) may be brought into Australia in your accompanied baggage.

8. What is Red and Green channel system?

a) Green Channel is for passengers having any dutiable goods. Red Channel is for passengers not having dutiable goods.

b) Incoming passengers are advised to choose the appropriate channels for Customs clearance

c) Passengers with goods to declare should go through the Red Channel. Passengers with nothing to declare can go through the Green Channel.

10. When is currency liable to confiscation?

a) If excess cash is declared, it cant be confiscated at the port of entry/exit and the passenger may be arrested

b) Extra money not declared and therefore concealed from the customs control is liable to confiscation.

c) Confiscation of goods and conveyances are impossible.

II. :

a) Almost all countries have diplomatic relations with almost all the countries in the world.

b) Almost all countries have built railway guns

c) Almost all countries have certain formalities through which incoming/outcoming passengers must pass.

Customs formalities include...

a) All visitors to some countries should fill in declaration forms and show their luggage to Customs officials on request.

b) Customs formalities include passport and visa control, health control and inspection of the passengers baggage.

c) Foreign visitors may bring in personal effects and other goods which are not prohibited by current customs regulation.

When the passenger enters/leaves the country he must...

a) When the passenger enters/leaves the country he/she must work on himself.

b) When the passenger enters/leaves the country he/she enjoys the protection of the country of his or her new nationality.

c) When the passenger enters/leaves the country he must fill in an entry/exit declaration.

The declaration must be kept...

a) The declaration must be kept until leaving Russia.

b) The declaration must be kept in or near the vehicle so it can be accessed readily from the vehicle for inspection by an enforcement officer.

c) The declarations will be kept on file but will not trigger any change in the legal status of the mark

Green channel is for passenger...

a) There are some customs channels for clearance of the baggage viz., green channel and red channel and others.

b) Green channel is for passengers not having any dutiable or prohibited / restricted goods.

c) If you are carrying currency including travellers cheques exceeding US $ 10,000 in value, do not forget to declare this to the Customs.

Red channel is for passenger...

There are one custom channel for clearance of the baggage.

The detained package is sealed with Customs seal in the presence of the passenger.

c) The Red Channel is for passengers having dutiable goods.

Restricted or prohibited articles...

a) A country may return or seize mail containing articles prohibited or restricted within that country.

b) If you (catch) with goods that are prohibited or restricted, or goods in excess of your Customs allowances, you (risk) heavy fines and possibly a prison sentence.

c) Prohibited or restricted articles though declared are usually detained.Personal belongings...

It is not allowed to export from Russia...

a) It is allowed to export from Russia items, including artworks older than 30 years.

b) It is not allowed to export from Russia books, tables, stamps.

c) It is not allowed to export from Russia items, including artworks older than 50 years

The owner of the luggage must...

a) The owner of the luggage must ask practical, answerable questions based on actual problems that you face.

b) The owner of the luggage must answer all questions and show all work.

c) The owner of the baggage must answer all the questions of the officer in charge

III. :

, .

a) Export/import customs formalities include declaration and official registration of all the necessary documents at the customs office.

b) Personal luggage may contain any items that the traveller is carrying on his/her journey and are needed for that purpose, such as clothes, shoes, toiletries, food items and other articles intended for personal use.

c) Customs formalities include passport and visa control, health control and inspection of the passengers baggage.

2. / .

a) The passenger must know about the journey.

b) The passenger must fill in an entry/exit declaration.

c) The passenger must fill in more detailed cruise contract.

3. , .

a) The passenger must declare all his/her children.

b) The passenger must declare all dutiable articles.

c) The passenger mustnt declare all dutiable articles.

6. .

a) To import an item of cultural value is necessary issued by the RF Ministry of Culture.

b) To export an item of uncessary value is necessary issued by the RF Ministry of Culture.

c) To export an item of cultural value is necessary issued by the RF Ministry of Culture.

7. .

a) The passenger of the baggage must present any article for customs examination.

b) The passenger of the baggage must have right to find out when the flight will be cancelled.

c) The passenger of the baggage must know if he/or cannot prove that he/she is the person indicated on the ticket, the carrier is entitled to refuse to transport this person.

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