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The theme of the lesson : Natural Disasters

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Today we are going to read the authentic texts from the British magazine GEO and discuss them in groups.

2. Warm-up activity (4).

a. Is the Earth a dangerous place to live? Why? What natural things can threaten peoples lives in a great scale?

b. Look at the pictures and label them. ( , ).

3. . (1 .) You have received the articles to read individually, in pairs or

Mini-groups using dictionaries.

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Read the articles and do the tasks after them. (12 ).

5. (6 .) answer the questions, writing true or false.

Earthquakes

Earthquakes can be so tremendously destructive; its hard to imagine they occur by the thousands every day around the world, usually in the form of small tremors.

Some 80 percent of all the planet's earthquakes occur along the rim of the Pacific Ocean, called the "Ring of Fire" because of the preponderance of volcanic activity there as well. Most earthquakes occur at fault zones, where tectonic platesgiant rock slabs that make up the Earth's upper layercollide or slide against each other. Other quakes can occur far from faults zones when plates are stretched or squeezed.

Scientists assign a magnitude rating to earthquakes based on the strength and duration of their seismic waves. A quake measuring 3 to 5 is considered minor or light; 5 to 7 is moderate to strong; 7 to 8 is major; and 8 or more is great.

On average, a magnitude 8 quake strikes somewhere every year and some 10,000 people die in earthquakes annually. Collapsing buildings claim by far the majority of lives, but the destruction is often compounded by mud slides, fires, floods, or tsunamis. Smaller temblors that usually occur in the days following a large earthquake can complicate rescue efforts and cause further death and destruction. Loss of life can be avoided through emergency planning, education, and the construction of buildings that sway rather than break under the stress of an earthquake.





Task1. . (6 .)

Answer the questions; true/ false/

1 The destructive earthquakes happen everywhere in the world. 2. Most of the earthquakes occur along the rim of the Pacific ocean. 3. A lot of earthquakes occur at the fault zones. 4. The Fault zones are the places where the Earths upper layers collide or slide against each other. 5. On average 10 thousand people are killed annually in the earthquakes 6. An earthquake measuring 7 or 8 is considered minor or light. 7. The only reason for peoples death during the earthquake is collapsing of buildings. Task 2 Discuss the following:

1. Why are the earthquakes so tremendously destructive?

2. How do the scientists assign the strength of waves?

3. Have you seen the films or watched TV programs about the earthquake? Was it very destructive? Where did it occur?

Read the article and fill in the table.

Hurricanes

Hurricanes are the giant, spiraling tropical storms that can pack wind speeds of over 257 kilometers an hour and unleash more than 9 trillion liters of rain a day. These same tropical storms are known as cyclones in the northern Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, and as typhoons in the western Pacific Ocean.

The Atlantic Oceans hurricane season peaks from mid-August to late October and averages five to six hurricanes per year.

Hurricanes begin as tropical disturbances in warm ocean waters with surface temperatures of at least 26.5 degrees Celsius.

Hurricanes are enormous heat engines that generate energy on a staggering scale. They draw heat from warm, moist ocean air and release it through condensation of water vapor in thunderstorms.

Hurricanes spin around a low-pressure center known as the eye. The eye is surrounded by a circular eye wall that hosts the storms strongest winds and rain.

These storms bring destruction ashore in many different ways. When a hurricane makes landfall it often produces a devastating storm surge. Ninety percent of all hurricane deaths result from storm surges.

The best defense against a hurricane is an accurate forecast that gives people time to get out of its way.

Task1: answer the questions, writing true orfalse.

1. The hurricanes often occur in the Indian and the Pacific oceans. 2. The hurricanes last from October till August in the Atlantic. 3. Warm ocean waters are the place where the hurricanes begin. 4. Hurricanes generate energy on a staggering stage. 5. The center of hurricane is an eye- a low pressure place in it. 6. People may be killed by a storm surge of a hurricane landfall. 7. People cannot predict hurricanes.

Task 2. Discuss the following:

1. What do you know about hurricanes?

2. How destructive can the hurricanes be?

3. Have you ever experienced a hurricane? Was it very strong? What is the best defense from hurricanes?

1. Read the text and fill in the table.

Tornadoes

Tornadoes are vertical funnels of rapidly spinning air. Their winds may top 400 kilometers an hour and can clear-cut a pathway a mile wide and 50 miles long.

These violent storms occur around the world, but the United States is a major hotspot with about a thousand tornadoes every year. U.S. tornadoes cause 80 deaths and more than 1,500 injuries per year.

Tornadoes appear more likely at some times than at others. They occur more often in late afternoon, when thunderstorms are common, and are more prevalent in spring and summer. However, tornadoes can and do form at any time of the day and year.

Tornadoes move at speeds of about 16 to 32 kilometers per hour. Most don't get very far though. They rarely travel more than about ten kilometers in their short lifetimes.

People, cars, and even buildings may be hurled aloft by tornado-force windsor simply blown away. Most injuries and deaths are caused by flying debris.

Tornado forecasters can't provide the same kind of warning that hurricane watchers can, but they can do enough to save lives. Today the average warning time for a tornado alert is 13 minutes. Tornadoes can also be identified by warning signs that include a dark, greenish sky, large hail, and a powerful train-like roar.

. (6 .) Answer the questions; true/ false/

1. Tornadoes are the wids with vertical funnels inside. 2. Most tornadoes in the world occur in the USA. 3. Tornadoes are common in the definite seasons of the year. 4. Tornadoes travel more than 100 kilometers long. 5. Most injuries and deaths are caused byflying objects. 6. A dark greenish sky, large hail, a powerful train-like roar is the warning signs of tornado. 7. Tornado watchers can predict it only an hour before it.

Task 2. Discuss the following:

1. What are tornadoes?

2. What is a common place of its occurrence?

3. What destruction can they cause to people?

4.How can people learn about the forthcoming tornado?

Read the text and fill in the table

Tsunami

Tsunami is a series of ocean waves that sends surges of water, sometimes reaching heights of over 100 feet (30.5 meters), onto land. These walls of water can cause widespread destruction when they crash ashore.

These waves are typically caused by large, undersea earthquakes at tectonic plate boundaries. When the ocean floor rises or falls suddenly it displaces the water above it and launches the rolling waves that will become a tsunami.

Most tsunamis, about 80 percent, happen within the Pacific Oceans Ring of Fire, a geologically active area. Tsunamis may also be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions.

Tsunamis race across the sea at up to 805 kilometers an hourabout as fast as a jet airplane. At that pace they can cross the entire expanse of the Pacific Ocean in less than a day. And their long wavelengths mean they lose very little energy along the way.

In a deep ocean, tsunami waves may appear only a foot or so high. But as they approach shoreline and enter shallower water they slow down and begin to grow in energy and height.

Its enormous volume of water typically hit shore five minutes or so later. Recognizing this phenomenon can save lives.

A tsunami is usually composed of a series of waves, called a wave train. People experiencing a tsunami should remember that the danger may not have passed with the first wave and should await official word that it is safe to return to vulnerable locations.

The best defense against any tsunami is early warning that allows people to seek higher ground.

Task1. . (6 .) Answer the questions; true/ false/.

1. Tsunamis are the ocens waves that send surges of water crashing ashore. 2. The waves of tsunamis are not very tall. 3. A tsunami is caused only by volcanic erupions. 4. Most tsunamis happen within a geological area. 5. The tsunamis speed is equal to the speed of the jet plane. 6. When tsunami approaches the shoreline it slows down. 7. Recognizing this phenomenon beforehand can save peoples lives. Task 2. Discuss the following:

1. What is a tsunami?

2. What are the reasons of their appearance?

3. Imagine that you are a witness of a tsunami. How can you avoid it? What will you do? What destruction can it cause to people? (Give an example of a recent tsunami in Japan).

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: λ.Topics on natural disasters.- 2010.




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